Tag Archives: Kishan Pachhai

Bhasa.

Kishan Pachhai

Prof Alex Bullen

GEO 106-101

11/22/2013

Language- Bhasa

            Language is common to all the humans. Many social scientists state, the ability to use language symbolically is what makes us human. Even though it is a universal human attribute, it is hardly simple because in some ways, it is surprising that languages change as they are passed down through the generations, reliably enough for parents and children to communicate with each other. All language changes over time – but at different rates. Languages change for a variety of reasons such as social, economic and political pressure. Languages usually change after the invasion, colonization and migration. The development of new items drives language change. New technologies, industries, products and experiences simply require new words. Nepal has 123 languages as the mother tongue, most belonging to Indo-Aryan and Sino-Tibetan language families. According to Kulper and Pauls, The official language of Nepal is Nepali and the percentage spoken as the mother tongue is 44.6% Out of 123 languages, 121 are living and 2 are extinct. Of the living languages 11 are institutional, 20 are developing, 26 are vigorous, 56 are in trouble and 8 are dying. Language is an important part of culture and peoples value.

Before Nepali came to be known as Nepali, the language, during different stages of its development, was called various names such as Khas-kura, Parbate or Parbattiya and Gorkhali. Nepali is originally an Indo-Aryan language, but as it passed through history, it incorporated number of words from the speeches of Tibeto-Burman family, Maithili, Rajasthan, Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Hindi, Bengali, Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Portuguese, and English according to Priat Giri in Origin and Development of Nepali Language and also, according to Brian H. Hodgson, a scholar of repute and British resident in Nepal. He counted thirteen distinct and strongly marked dialects in the mountainous parts of the limits of the modern kingdom of Nepal. They were the Khas, the Mangar, the Gurung, the Sunwar, The Kachari, the Haiyu, the Chepang, the Kusunda, the Murmi, the Newari, the Kiranti, the Limbuan, and the Lepchan. Except the Khas, all the other speeches belong to the Tibeto-Burman family. Khas was the language spoken in the great kingdom or empire of Khasas which was established in 12th century. The name Khas-Kura was used for the language by the Tibeto-Burman speaking Mongoloids, particularly by the Newars of the Nepal valley, which is present day Kathmandu.

As the speaker of Khasa language moved eastward, it gave rise to number of dialects. The speeches of Khasas were adopted by the new immigrants and their influence of the speeches on Khas language. Parbat was the pre-dominant one and explains why Khas-Kura came to known as Parbate. With the help of high caste Brahmans and Gorkha’s conquest of the kingdoms of Nepal valley, language was being spread. Prithivi Narayan Saha conquered all the other kingdoms and joined them into one. He took over the Nepal valley in 1768-69 thus shifting the capital from Gorkha to Kathmandu. The Khasa speech was spoken in Gorkha, and Gorkha gave a new importance to this language as it came into wider official use. The language then came to known as Gorkhali. Khas-Kura didn’t spread only as the result of conquests of Gorkha but it was spreading even before conquerors began their campaign. The language during its transition from Khas-Kura to Parbate to Gorkhali to present Nepali has transformed words from multiple dialects.

Edited By: Araceli, Jason, Susana

ImageNepali Alphabets

ImageChart: Shows langues spoken in Nepal

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Map of Nepal

Work Cited

Basnet, Dev B. “Online Nepali Literature Forum.” Online Nepali Literature Forum. Online Nepali Literature Forum, 5 Nov. 2005. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. <http://www.sahityaghar.com/modules/detail.php?ID=434&gt;.

Kulper, Kathleen, and Elizabeth P. Pauls. “Nepali Language.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 24 June 2009. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/409194/Nepali-language&gt;.

Rubenstein, James M. “Languages.” Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography. N.p.: Prentice Hall PTR, 2013. 142-177. Print.

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Ethnicity in Nigeria.

Kishan Pachhai

Prof Alex Bullen

GEO 106-101

11/19/2013

Ethnicity

                    Ethnicity is a source of pride to people. It is a link to the experiences of ancestors and to cultural traditions such as food, clothing, and music preferences. It is also belonging to a group with which they share cultural background. Ethnicity matters in places of discrimination by one ethnic group, against the other. An ethnic group is tied to a particular place because of members of the group, their ancestors, and place born and raised.  Ethnicities have distinctive traits. The trait displayed by ethnicity derives from particular conditions and practices. Nigeria is a home to more than 500 ethnic groups, but it is primarily made up of four main ethnic groups including Hausa, Fulani who are Muslims, Igbo and Yoruba who are about sixty percent of the population. Reasons behind the violence in Nigeria are ethnic or religious differences due to scrambles for land, scarce resources, and political clout. Poverty, joblessness, and corrupt politics drive the country and even though nation rakes in billions of dollars in oil. The majority of Nigerians scrape by less than a dollar a day. Differences in ethnicity and the need to be superior to the other is the cause of the civil war, violence, and lack of development in the country.

Nigeria has been plagued by violence for decades. The poor distribution of wealth in Nigeria’s oil-rich southern Delta region causes militants to regularly blow up pipelines for greater revenue, and kidnapping foreign oil workers. Violence between Muslim and Christian ethnic group was always kept in check by military regimes, but it started again when Nigeria returned to Civilian rule in 1 October, 1979. The greater freedom of religious expression in Nigeria is due to democracy, as it intensified the political and economic friction between the ethnic groups. According to Buhayar, in “Ethnicity in Nigeria” says that rioting in 2001 killed more than 1,000 people outbreak in 2005, killed another thousand in 2008, and in 20009 small but vicious attacks claimed dozen of lives.

The current population in Nigeria has increased to over one hundred and sixty eight million, from one hundred and twenty two million back in 2000. Over time, all the ethnic groups grow much larger. Nigeria however continues to have its difficulties, successfully governing variety of people in which over four hundred different languages are spoken and on top the same number of separate cultures. The cities are very discriminative along ethno-religious lines, and usually an ethnic clash in part of country can trigger the riot or attack in other parts of the country. All major ethnic groups have formed militias to protect their own interest as the law enforcement is not strict.  I think that the Nigerians will continue to participate in its own civil war. Being so diverse in ethnicity, each has their own belief, so the need to take over and being superior to the other group, this is what prompts the wars and fights. According to Simon, in Ethnicity in Nigeria, It is known as “the Giant of Africa”, for being popular in Africa and seventh most populous country in the world. Its economy is the second largest in African and the 30th largest in the word as of 2012. So, if all the people from different ethnicity were to get together, I believe that Nigeria can be really developed country as civil wars only affect them from progressing in the long run.

Edited By: Araceli, Jason, Susana

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Residents of the Nigerian village of Dogo Nahawa stand by a mass grave on March 8, 2010, as health officials cover bodies of people killed during a religious clash with the Hausa-Fulani

Federal Republic of Nigeria
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Map of Nigeria exhibiting 36 states and the federal capital territory

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Work Cited

 Rakov, Simon A. “Ethnicity in Nigeria.” Ethnicity in Nigeria. Postcolonialweb.com, Aug. 2000. Web. 19        Nov. 2013. <http://www.postcolonialweb.org/nigeria/ethnicity.html&gt;.

Rubenstein, James M. “Ethnicity.” Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography. N.p.: Prentice Hall PTR, 2013. 224-55. Print.

Immigration in the United States.

Kishan Pachhai

Prof Alex Bullen

GEO 106-101

11/16/2013

Immigration

            People move from one country to another, usually with the aim of permanent settlement in the chosen country. People move for many different reasons such the need to flee their country because of an immediate threat to their health. In this instance, they are refugees as they seek safety in another country, new opportunities, a fresh start, freedom, and equal rights. Immigration is the human form of migration and it is as old as the first human group. People migrate even now due to causes like war and as a result of a bad government, but whatever the reason, immigration will never stop as long as one country has a better opportunity, resources and government that they can count on than the other. United States has attracted immigrants from all around the world. Europeans entering Ellis Island, while Chinese and other Asians entered into San Francisco. The U.S. has been a refuge of the world for a long time, with new opportunities and freedom for all. Millions around the world have found that migration to the U.S. is the only alternative to starvation, death and life full of hardship and suffering. With thousands of people coming from different parts of the nations, America has been a mixture of people, culture and hope.

Legal immigration in the U.S. has increased from 250,000 in the 1930s, to 2.5 Million in the 1950s, to 4.5 Million in the 1970s, and to 7.3 Million in the 1980s before resting at about 10 million in the 1990s.(chart 1-1) Since the 2000s, the migration in the U.S. has gone up to 1,000,000 per year of whom 600,000 are change of status who are already in the US according to top ten immigration facts. Immigration is in the headlines of the news as well with President Obama’s decision to stop deporting young illegal immigrants who came to the United States as children. Nor is it the headline of news, but immigration has brought the evolution of the industrial economy and the developments of American. The immigrants added their culture, traditions, food, and their holidays to those of the U.S.

Immigration gives the United States an economic edge in the world economy. Immigrants bring new ideas, entrepreneurial spirit to the U.S. economy, and provide business contacts to other markets, which have helped America’s ability to trade and invest profitably in the global economy per U.S. immigration facts. They also keep our economy flexible as immigrants do no push Americans out of jobs. Immigrants tend to fill jobs that Americans cannot or will not fill, mostly at high and low ends of skill level. They are represented in high-skilled fields such as medicine, physics, and computer science but also in lower-skilled sectors such as hotels & restaurants, domestic service, and light manufacturing. Without immigration, labor force would begin to shrink. The tourist industry would lose millions of foreign visitors, and American universities would lose hundreds of thousands of foreign students if the borders were closed.

Edited By: Susana, Jason, Oren

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Immigration data in flagImage

Work Cited

Frey, William F. “US Immigration Facts.” US Immigration Facts 1.2 (2007): n. pag. US Immigration Facts. 2007. Web. 12 Nov. 2013. http://www.rapidimmigration.com/1_eng_immigration_facts.html

“Top Ten U.S. Immigration Facts.” Web log post. Revcom Top Ten US Immigration Facts Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Nov. 2013. http://blog.rev.com/articles/immigration/top-ten-us-immigration-facts/

The Source.

Kishan Pachhai

Prof Alex Bullen

GEO 106-101

11/12/2013

The Source

            The city of Longmont doesn’t have its own supply of water. Longmont’s water originates in the Rocky Mountains mainly from snow melt. The city of Longmont’s drinking water is all surface water which is operated by Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District. The sources of water are North St. Vrain Creek, South St. Vrain creek and St. Vrain Creek. (Map 1-1)  Snow melts as the weather gets warmer and runs down Saint Vrain Creek. From there, the water is either stored in Ralph Price Reservoir for later use or divided into pipelines below the Longmont damn to be delivered to water treatment plants. Another source for water is from the western slope from the Colorado River which is delivered through the Alva B. Adams tunnel, through Estes and Carter Lake. From there it is brought down to the Saint Vrain Supply canal into Longmont’s water treatment plants.

Longmont is lucky to have high quality water that originates in the mountain which runs through wilderness, and rarely affected by runoff from abandoned mines. According to the Longmont water quality report, some of the contaminants that may be present in the water are microbial which could be virus and bacteria coming from sewage treatment plant, agricultural livestock, and wildlife. Inorganic contaminants such as metals & salts, pesticides, herbicides, organic chemical and radioactive contaminants are also found in the water before the treatment. Lead is a metal that is found in natural deposit which is commonly used in household plumbing materials and water service lines. One of the concerns is swallowing lead or breathing in lead paint chips and dust which can cause a variety of health effects. In order to minimize the potential for lead exposure, flush your tap for 30 seconds to 2 minutes before using water for drinking and cooking.

According to the water quality report, Longmont water involves several steps in water treatment. Steps included are coagulation where aluminum salts (chemicals called polymers) are mixed with water. Flocculation includes coagulated particles are slowly mixed. Sedimentation then takes place in which where water flows through a large tank and lets the water settles. Filtration is where water is passed through filters made of sand and anthracite coal, while disinfection is when chlorine is added to kill remaining bacteria. Fluoridation involves fluoride that is added to help prevent tooth decay and stabilization where small amounts of soda are added to make the water less corrosive to pipes and plumbing. After the treatment of water, it is delivered through transmission pipelines and all the treated water from storage tanks is also distributed through the pipelines. All these pipelines are located under the streets and alleys which connect to service lines, to provide water to homes and businesses with high quality of water. Some of the Cool facts about Longmont water are that 5.95 Billion gal used last year, 67,726 gallons were used during year per person, 861 million gallons used in peak month of august, 32.3 million gallon used on peak daily and 9,547 tests were done on the drinking water during the year of 2012 per water quality report from Longmont.

Edited By: Araceli, Jason, Susana

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Work Cited

Johnson, Brent. “Longmont’s 2013 Water Outlook.” Weekly Posting. Longmont Weekly. Times Call, 3 Mar. 2013. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://www.longmontweekly.com/longmont-local-news/ci_22690569/longmonts-2013-water-outlook&gt;.

City of Longmont,. “Water Quality Report.” Drinking , Water Utilities, City of Longmont, Colorado. City of Longmont, 2002. Web. 12 Nov. 2013.