Tag Archives: Jennah Reiman

Norwegian Language and the Influence of Politics

Jennah Reiman

Prof. Bullen

GEO 106-101

 11 Dec. 2013

Article #4

Norwegian Language and the Influence of Politics

Political movements occur for a need of change, and a lot of changes occur after a movement.  Many things can cause a necessity for change, ranging from global issues to consequences as the result of single persons’ actions.  On a personal level, language, ethnicity and religion can play a huge role in creating conflict.  Often, at the end of a political movement, the newly gained freedom concludes in the separation of different languages that were previously considered as dialects. 

The history of Norway displays the manner in which one country, on the journey to independence also gained their own language.  The Norwegian language originally was categorized as a Danish dialect.  Norway was under Danish rule up until 1814, however they were still not declared with freedom.  Sweden was the ruler of Norway until May 17, 1905, when Norway was granted independence and obtained a separate Norwegian language.  An author by the name of Stephen May has voiced his concern with the topic of language and politics, in that, “languages, and the status attached to them, are the product of wider historical, social and political forces” (May, 4).  To relate, the fact that there is a defined Norwegian language is evidence of a prolonged struggle for independence.  It is a symbol that over time of political discourse the Norwegians have gained the power to rule themselves.  Although war was a possibility at points during Norway’s history, implications were resolved peacefully.  Stuart Burch, an author published in History Today, mentioned that, “this flavours the present in the way that Norway seeks to promote itself as a world leader in conflict resolution” (Burch). 

Ongoing patterns, similar to the one mentioned above, can be found throughout the history of many nations in their conquest of independence.  Gaining and losing aspects of language, ethnicity, nationality, religion, culture and way of life are just a few changes that can cause and occur after political movements. In the case of Norway, they were able to gain recognition of freedom and language through political processes.  This exemplifies that the political processes that gave Norway freedom, also lead to the separation of the Norwegian Language.

Edited by: Nathan Lee, Emily Flora and Jessica Silvestri

Works Cited

May, Stephen. “The Politics of Language.” Introduction. Language and Minority Rights: Ethnicity, Nationalism and the Politics of Language. New York: Routledge, 2008. 4-5. Print.

Burch, Stuart. “Norway and 1905.” History Today. History Today, 2005. Web. 02 Dec. 2013.

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Native American Gaming.

Jennah Reiman

Prof. Bullen

GEO 106-101

11 Dec. 2013

Article #3

Native American Gaming

            Along with ethnicity, comes distinct cultural traditions that define and differentiate various ethnicity groups.  Key elements of human culture are distributed across the globe alongside the ethnicities that uphold them.  Native Americans have strong traditions around playing games, and this aspect has followed their distribution.  In Oklahoma, Indian reservations are full of casinos owned by those with Cherokee, Navajo, Arapaho and many other Native American ethnicities. The distribution of ethnicity leads to the distribution of key elements of their culture such as gambling in the Native American culture.

Since the beginning of time gambling has been a large part of culture to those falling into the category of ethnic tribes in the Native American race.  They practiced two kinds of gambling games, according to the Santa Ynes Band of Chumash Indians they played, “games that required skill to play and games of chance”.  They went on to explain that, “our ancestors often gambled on the outcome of the games. Each village had a special area, called malamtepupi, where games were played” (History of Native American Gaming).  After the Civil War many Native Americans were forced from their homes and into reservations.  A large percentage of these natives still live on reservations, which have a high volume of casinos.  According to a writer for the National Bureau of Economic Research, Linda Gorman, “half of the Indians on or near reservations now belong to tribes that have opened Las Vegas-style casinos” (Gorman).  The more Native Americans in a location, tends to lead to a greater amount of casinos in the area.

In America, there is a higher population of Native Americans in the states on the South Western coast as well as the states near the great lakes.  When looking at the distribution of Native American casinos, it seems to follow the same trend.  Gaming is a key element many tribes that consider to be Native American, casinos reflect this as the distribution of these facilities follow the distribution of the population.

Edited by: Emily Flora, Jacob Ttandafer, and Jessica Silvestri

Works Cited

“History of Native American Gaming.” History of Native American Gaming. Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Indians, 2009. Web. 30 Nov. 2013.

Gorman, Linda. “The Social and Economic Impact of Native American Casinos.” The Social and Economic Impact of Native American Casinos. National Bureau of Economic Research, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.

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Sustainability of Biodiversity and the Economy in Costa Rica.

Jennah Reiman

Prof. Bullen

GEO 106-101

11 Dec. 2013

Article # 2

Sustainability of Biodiversity and the Economy in Costa Rica

            A new course of action towards bettering the environment has changed distribution of economic activities.  Recently, a technique using buffer zones has hit the market in improving biodiversity.  This technique involves creating a neutral area between natural reserves and city limits to help create a cushion for protecting the environment.  Buffer zones are a key influence in the global distribution of agriculture and the economic properties that follow.

Conserving protected areas not only enhances environmental biodiversity but also the economy of the surrounding areas.  An example of where buffer zones have proven to be beneficial is in Costa Rica.  In effort to better conserve national parks, Costa Rica has boosted the economy by creating pull factors for many individuals.  The natural beauty that has been restored to the protected areas creates a lot of tourism.  Dense forests in the county give people incentive to visit historical parks and to regain a connection to nature.  Tourism greatly helps the economy of Costa Rica as an article discussing the topic explains; “raising fees for protected areas (particularly for foreign visitors) has shown great potential for providing a sustainable flow of funding to protected areas” (Economic Incentives and Protected Areas, 54).  These buffer zones are also gaining popularity for use of farming and live stock.  Many farmers however, are reminded not to over-harvest, use many natural resources or contribute to deforestation.  Regarding migrants, anthropologist David Hoffman mentions that “in the Costa Rican case, many migrants are urban-to-rural migrants, often sacrificing the educational and economic amenities of urban San José for the perceived safety, tranquility and rurality of PA buffer zones” (Hoffman).  The introduction of buffer zones has created many changes to the Costa Rican economy.

Buffer zones have well benefitted Costa Rica, in that both the sustainability of the environment and the economy seem to have bright futures.  The economy is flourishing from this green revolution and so is the biodiversity.  People are moving from urban to rural areas and the economy is following; creating a change in distribution of economic activities.  Promoting this idea could help other countries economically as well as return the earth back into a habitable region for all species.  Although it may take time and effort, the end results are well worth making a change.

Edited by: Shae Kovalchick, Nathan Lee and Emily Flora

Works Cited

“Economic Incentives and Protected Areas.” 47-60. Mekong-protected-areas.org. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://www.mekong-protected-areas.org/mekong/docs/tlp-04.pdf&gt;.

Hoffman, David M. “What Do Migrants Think?” Anthropology News. American Anthropological Association, 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2013.

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The Spread of American Popular Culture into Europe.

Jennah Reiman

Prof. Bullen

GEO 106-101

11 Dec. 2013

Article # 1

The Spread of American Popular Culture into Europe

            American popular culture is one of the most wide spread and dominant forms of culture today.  The recent Europe’s Music Awards (EMA’s) shows the spread of popular music culture as it was a response to the American Video Music Awards (VMA’s).  This spread of popular culture is manifested by various routes.

American popular culture originated from technological advances and an increase of leisure time.  Originally the spread of American pop culture was a result of broadcasting music to American soldiers stationed in regions during World War II (Rubenstien, 110).  With the large advancements in internet and television, the sharing of popular culture is increasing by the ease of modern communication.  The music of popular culture spreads primarily through audio media, such as radio, youtube, television etc.  It’s easy to tell that American music had a large influence on the EMA’s since most of the nominees and performances were those of American pop culture.  Miley Cyrus performed live at both music awards as well as Robin Thicke. Popular American artists such as Katy Perry, Taylor Swift, Justin Beiber, Bruno Mars, Justin Timberlake, Drake and Eminem were nominees at both shows (MTV.com).  Popular culture spreads like wildfire with the help of popular media.

There are many factors that could explain such similarities within the award ceremonies being held in two very different locations.  While one took place in Brooklyn, New York and the other in Amsterdam, they were both hosted by MTV (Music Television).  MTV originated in America, so it’s possible they have skewed the nominees to be more American.  Also, many people from the United States were allowed to vote on the winners for the EMA’s.  America also has many famous individuals with significantly large amounts of money to promote their music in various countries.  For these reasons and many more, the link between the two music awards is easily understood.  Nevertheless, those follow popular culture, American and European alike, have now jumped on the Miley twerk train on a widespread rampage through modern media.

Edited by: Nathan Lee, Emily Flora, Kyra Binaxas and Shae Kovalchick

Works Cited

MTV.com. “2013 MTV Video Music Awards.” New Music Videos, Reality TV Shows, Celebrity News, Pop Culture. Viacom International Inc., 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013.

MTV.com. “MTV EMA 2013.” EMA.MTV. Viacom International Inc., 2013. Web. 18 Nov. 2013.

Rubenstien, James M. The Cultural Landscape. Pearson Education Inc. 2014.

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