Chemicals Affecting Drinking Water.

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and the subsequent elevation in the use of industrial chemicals, there have been a multitude of corporations leaking these chemicals into public water supply. As early as 1952, Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) was leaking hexavalent chromium into the ground water, and eventually the tap water, of the Mojave Desert region (Layton, pgr. 12). With dangers being presented from drinking water out of the tap, many have turned to home water filtration which are only reliable for removing some bacteria (Keating pgr. 4). There is a clear case to be made from this evidence. The US needs a solution to clean drinking water, immediately.

In the mid-90s a legal battle ensued between PG&E and legal activist, Erin Brokovich. The case was based on evidence Brokovich had gathered, showing the company’s record of leaking a significant amount of Hexevalent Chromium into the ground water below Hinkley, CA. Hexevalent Chromium is a known carcinogen, the detection of which can be technical and arduous. These events were concluded in 1996 when, “the company paid $333 million in damages… and pledged to clean up the contamination” (Layton, pgr. 12). Currently the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is fighting a similar issue.

Lindsey Layton published an article in the Washington Post, “EPA urges testing for chemical in tap water.” Discussed in her article are the issues that face such testing, such as the need for a budget increase to the EPA. Generating this need is the laboratory equipment required in the difficult process that tests for Hexevalent Chromium. In a quote from George Hawkins, the General Manager of D.C. Water, said that any guidance were given from the EPA would be followed. Additionally, he stated, “If additional testing needs to be taken to make sure that what we’re doing is protective of public health, that’s what we’ll do,” (Layton pgr. 3,4). Currently there is no federal limit on the amount of this chemical that can be in public water (Layton pgr. 6). With no way of removing these chemicals, currently found in government run facilities, or available for purchase on the commercial market, it is difficult to understand why so little is being done (Keating pgr. 5).

There is additional information, not discussed here due to its substantial amount, that shows everything from pharmaceuticals to Hexevalent Chromium can be found in the water we drink. The most each person can do is write their appropriate congressman and be aware of the filtration system they are buying, as there are some that can remove more of these chemicals than others. It is also important to raise awareness of this issue, since the nature of these changes require both time and money.

Works Cited

Layton, Lyndsey. “EPA urges testing for chemical in tap water.”Washington Post 23 Dec. 2010: A04. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.

Keating, Michael “Public told to beware when buying water filters.” Globe & Mail [Toronto, Canada] 30 July 1986: A13. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.

Reviewed by:

Jacob Standafer

Oren Paisner

Jennah Reiman
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Youtube’s Influence on Pop Culture.

Since 2005, the year of its creation, Youtube has enabled anyone with the will to host any video they would like. Of course such a premise has been abused with copyright infringements and the like, but it continues to be an outlet. People from across the planet can share their home videos, creative videos, and anything else, in 1080p quality. This phenomenon has also been used by politicians. Dramatically decreasing the cost to run for an office by the virtue of how many people access this website daily. Undoubtedly, Youtube has had a significant impact on pop culture, over the years.

Thanks to Youtube, the dead art of the music video saw a revival since 2005. In the 1980s-1990s music videos were a key component of Pop Music. Thus how the television channel “MTV” produced a culture unto its self. However, during the later part of the 90s there was a steady decline in both interest and production of music videos. By 2000, this decline had led to an almost flat-line in the art. With the launch of Youtube in 2005, and its near over-night popularity, the music video became accessible to the mainstream consumer again (Berlatsky pgr 1,2,3).

In addition to the effects Youtube had on the music video, it has undeniable implications as a political tool. President Barak Obama declared his intent to pursue re-election in 2012 via Youtube video. To which his competitor, Mitt Romney, responded using the social media site Twitter (Glen pgr. 2,3,8). These practices have been viewed, largely, as positive. By relying on a social media site to spread their message, political candidates are no longer limited by the exponential sums of money required to deliver a message to their supporters. While this method does not cover their entire supporter base, it does deliver a message, quickly, to a large number of them.

Youtube, as well as several other social media and hosting web sites, have brought about a faster and more cost effective means of delivering media to a massive amount of people. In comparison to more traditional means (i.e. books, television, radio, etc.) the rate at which it does so is staggering. This is further validated by the fact that some of the most powerful people in the USA are now using them for their own political messages. Youtube has been, and will most likely continue to be, a powerful influence on popular culture.

Works Cited

Johnson, Glen. “Social Media Allow Political Candidates to Bypass Traditional Media.” Politics and the Media. Ed. Debra A. Miller. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2012. Current Controversies. Rpt. from “Social Media Let Candidates Bypass Traditional Media.” boston.com. 2011.Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2013.

“Introduction to The Music Industry: Opposing Viewpoints.” The Music Industry. Ed. Noah Berlatsky. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2012. Opposing Viewpoints. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 2 Dec. 2013.

Reviewed by:

Jacob Standafer
Oren Paisner

Jennah Reiman
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Does Migrating Change People?

Susana Gallegos
Alex Bullen
Human Geography
December 2, 2013
            Does Migrating Change People?
            I was fifteen when my father got a job on the other side of the border, the United States. I was very comfortable living in Agua Prieta, Sonora Mexico. I never really realized that moving to another country was going to impact my life as much as it has done. Migrating changed my lifestyle: culture and way of thinking. Migration has an impact on an individual, but would it impact an individual enough to change her life? In this essay I will explain my personal migration impact.
            The text book The Cultural Landscape, describes interregional migration as “The movement from one region of a country to another…Main type of interregional migration has been from rural to urban areas in search of jobs”. My father obtained a job as a Presbyterian pastor in South Carolina. I was still in high school in Agua Prieta. When my mother and father told me we were moving, I never thought of all the changes I was going to go through, not even when I was saying good bye to my friends.
            When I started high school in Greenville, SC I realized how different education was. First of all, throughout public schools in Mexico all the way through high school, students are required to wear uniforms. I knew before that in American high school you did not have to wear uniforms. Being able to wear “regular clothes” to school was fun, until I realized how much money my parents have to spend buying clothes for me to wear to school, more than they used to it in Mexico. According to Stacy Zeiger, in her article “Statistics in School Uniform” the author explains that wearing uniform has academic, behavioral, emotional and financial effects. Looking at the financial effects Stacy Zeigers mentions that uniforms can be expensive. I agree with the author. Yes uniforms can be expensive, but one can buy two and can last a year or longer, it ends up being more economic.
            Culture was shocking, especially moving to the South of the USA. Southerners seem to have their own kind of language, especially African-American people. The food was different, personally some of them were tasteless, but after a while I got use to some of it. Mexican food is rich in flavor, so it took some time to get use to the flavors of Southern food, which I learn to really enjoy it and to avoid grits.
            I have been in the United States for eight years now. I have got use to the language and the ways of living. I still celebrate the special holidays that are typically from Mexico, as well as the Americans. I still know who I am, but I am grateful to live in the United States. I miss my family and friends from Mexico, even thou they sometimes make fun of me because I am “Americanized” It does not matter. In a way I am a little more cultured in the border subject, and I am happy with that.
Rubenstein, James M. “Folk and Popular Culture.” Cultural Landscape.                                                      Harlow:Pearson Education Limited, 2014. Print.
Stacy Zeiger. “Statistics on School Uniforms.” LoveToKnow. N.p., n.d.                              Web. 02 Dec. 2013

Water in Longmont, Colorado.

Susana Gallegos

Alex Bullen

Geo.

Vital Water

 

Water is a vital liquid that we need in order to survive. Most of the planet is composed of water and most of life on the planet needs and uses water on a daily basis. Many people do not value water as they should. Many do not even know where it comes from, or the process it takes for us to have drinkable water in our homes. This article will explain where water in Longmont comes from and how vital water is to our life.

According to SurvivalTopics.com humans can go with out water from eight to ten days, depending on the person and depending on the circumstances. Just our human body alone is made up of 60% water. But without water we would not be able to survive. It is a vital nutrient to the life of every cell in our body.  According to H.H. Mitchell, Journal of Biological Chemistry 158, our brain and heart are composed of 73% water, and our lungs are about 83% water.  And we must consume a certain amount of water to survive and thrive.

 

The quality of the water is also very important because water is a transporter of nutrients and it flushes and detoxifies our bodily systems.  So if our water is contaminated it can cause a multitude of many diseases such as cancer.  This is why we should know and be educated on where our water comes from because it will help us appreciate and value such an important resource. According to the City of Longmont our water originates from the Rocky Mountains thanks to the snow. When the snow melts, that water goes to Snit. Vrain Creek; after it can either go to Ralph Price Reservoir or to pipelines below Longmont Dam. Longmont also gets its water from Western Slope from the Colorado River it travels through different places until it gets into Longmont’s water treatment plants. After a cleansing process it then gets delivered through the city pipelines and is administered to us in our sinks.

 

We should appreciate our water, and help to reserve it and keep it clean because without water all living things such as animals and plants would die and without them we would not have food to eat or oxygen to breathe, so we too would die. The bottom line is that water is life and without water life would not exist.

 

 

 

Mitchell, H. H. “The Water in You.” Water Properties: (Water Science for Schools).  USGS, n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2013.

 

“That Water to Drink.” That Water to Drink. Survival Topics, n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2013.

 

“Where Does Our Water Comes From?” City of Longmont, n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2014.

Ethnicity, politics, and its conflicts.

Ethnicity, Politics, and its Conflicts

Ethnicity deals a lot with religious based conflicts. The Middle East has one of the highest concentrations for religious segregations among countries. Religious tolerance is at a boiling point among the Middle Eastern countries. For example, Lebanon, this country has “four million people in an area of 10,000 square foot.” The whole country is divided into different sub-units of religion. Christians in the South and Northwest, Sunni Muslims in far north, Shite Muslims in the northeast, and Druze in the south central and southeast (Rubenstein). Correspondingly, the conflict in Syria has taken a turn towards a religious war. A recent report stated that Shite Muslims from Lebanon, Iraq, and Iran have “flooded into Syria to defend sacred sites” the Sunni Muslims, some whom are affiliated with the al Qaeda joined with rebels. Now both sides are calling one another “infidels” and “Satan’s army,”(Religion. Blogs) all these religious rhetorical cries make this Middle Eastern battle a muddy radicalization. Moreover, we can start to see that religious segregation creates conflict among nations. Religious battles, has, and always will reoccur.

 

This map shows the areas of conflict in the Middle East.

 

Work Cited

http://religion.blogs.cnn.com/2013/09/04/syrian-wars-got-religion-and-that-aint-good/

Rubenstein, James. The Culutural Landscape. 11th edition. New Jersey: Pearson, 2005. 240-241. Print.

Edited by:

Jacob Standafer

Kyra Binaxas

Ellie Strandquest

Benefits of migrations.

Benefits of Migrations

People often suggest that migration is bad or completely out of control. Especially when you think about Mexico and the immigration issues accompanied with that situation—it is a problem. However, there are some positive sides to migration. For instance, it is normal for people to migrate to a more desirable place and move around to work. Also, outsiders have the ability to see things differently, and have more of a drive to succeed, considering they are not given the opportunity that most take for granite. In Silicon Valley, Google, Yahoo, and E-bay, were all “co-founded by immigrants, who arrived in America as children.” Having immigrants can help sustain the economy by giving the workforce more flexibility. Also, immigration creates more job vacancies, and new young workers to fill in the pension gap. (embraceni.org).

 

This map represents the areas with the most migration.

China’s socioeconomic development.

China’s socioeconomic development

In order to understand a socio economic development or status of a region, geographers must first measure economic and social development by space, regions, and place. By making connections with how the rest of the world functions, geographers can start to conceptualize social development and economic development such as political, social, and economical status. For example, China is having a severe impact on the inequalities between wealthy and poor communities. About “ten percent of rural residents have to travel more than 30 minutes to receive medical care.” Emergency medical care is way out of reach for rural residents, due to inadequate facilities and scarce physicians within rural areas. Considering the rural areas in China are vast, there is also limited access in surveys, producing misrepresented surveys. People of all ages are like the “floating population” and little is known about the real challenges that face this group of people. These rural residents of China are among the poorest of their country.

 

 

 

 

 

Work Cited

http://www.who.int/macrohealth/action/CMH_China.pdf

Rubenstein, James. The Cultural Landscape. 11th edition. New Jersey: Pearson, 2005. Chapter 11. Print.

Edited by:

Jacob Standafer

Kyra Binaxas

Ellie Strandquest

Food and Agriculture: Crisis Across the Globe.

Food and Agriculture: Crisis Across the Globe

Food and Agriculture is the heart of our civilization. Varieties of cultures celebrate different aspects of food and agriculture to maintain continuity. Food and Agriculture is an issue that is leaving vast parts of the world in starvation. The accessibility of food is a privilege and should be a human right, considering it is the fundamental of life. And while it is the heart of humanity, it is also the death of humanity.

The map above indicates the parts of the world that are hungry. Places such as East Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America/Caribbean, and other Developed countries. All are in dire need of food and water. East Africa gets its water supply from the annual rainfalls, which supply rivers. However, East Africa is having one of the driest decades ever recorded. People are resorting to illegally tapping into the water lines, and gathering at the community water points. Due to infrastructure, water supply is almost nil to most East Africans.

Food crisis are due to poverty; poverty is the root that leads to hunger. We might ask ourselves: How do physical environments affect political processes? Wouldn’t this be the root that leads to hunger and the lack of water, despite the failed rains?

Work Cited

http://thewaterproject.org/poverty.asp

www.globalissues.org/issue/749/food-and-agriculture-issues

Edited by:

Jacob Standafer

Kyra Binaxas

Ellie Strandquest

Bhasa.

Kishan Pachhai

Prof Alex Bullen

GEO 106-101

11/22/2013

Language- Bhasa

            Language is common to all the humans. Many social scientists state, the ability to use language symbolically is what makes us human. Even though it is a universal human attribute, it is hardly simple because in some ways, it is surprising that languages change as they are passed down through the generations, reliably enough for parents and children to communicate with each other. All language changes over time – but at different rates. Languages change for a variety of reasons such as social, economic and political pressure. Languages usually change after the invasion, colonization and migration. The development of new items drives language change. New technologies, industries, products and experiences simply require new words. Nepal has 123 languages as the mother tongue, most belonging to Indo-Aryan and Sino-Tibetan language families. According to Kulper and Pauls, The official language of Nepal is Nepali and the percentage spoken as the mother tongue is 44.6% Out of 123 languages, 121 are living and 2 are extinct. Of the living languages 11 are institutional, 20 are developing, 26 are vigorous, 56 are in trouble and 8 are dying. Language is an important part of culture and peoples value.

Before Nepali came to be known as Nepali, the language, during different stages of its development, was called various names such as Khas-kura, Parbate or Parbattiya and Gorkhali. Nepali is originally an Indo-Aryan language, but as it passed through history, it incorporated number of words from the speeches of Tibeto-Burman family, Maithili, Rajasthan, Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Hindi, Bengali, Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Portuguese, and English according to Priat Giri in Origin and Development of Nepali Language and also, according to Brian H. Hodgson, a scholar of repute and British resident in Nepal. He counted thirteen distinct and strongly marked dialects in the mountainous parts of the limits of the modern kingdom of Nepal. They were the Khas, the Mangar, the Gurung, the Sunwar, The Kachari, the Haiyu, the Chepang, the Kusunda, the Murmi, the Newari, the Kiranti, the Limbuan, and the Lepchan. Except the Khas, all the other speeches belong to the Tibeto-Burman family. Khas was the language spoken in the great kingdom or empire of Khasas which was established in 12th century. The name Khas-Kura was used for the language by the Tibeto-Burman speaking Mongoloids, particularly by the Newars of the Nepal valley, which is present day Kathmandu.

As the speaker of Khasa language moved eastward, it gave rise to number of dialects. The speeches of Khasas were adopted by the new immigrants and their influence of the speeches on Khas language. Parbat was the pre-dominant one and explains why Khas-Kura came to known as Parbate. With the help of high caste Brahmans and Gorkha’s conquest of the kingdoms of Nepal valley, language was being spread. Prithivi Narayan Saha conquered all the other kingdoms and joined them into one. He took over the Nepal valley in 1768-69 thus shifting the capital from Gorkha to Kathmandu. The Khasa speech was spoken in Gorkha, and Gorkha gave a new importance to this language as it came into wider official use. The language then came to known as Gorkhali. Khas-Kura didn’t spread only as the result of conquests of Gorkha but it was spreading even before conquerors began their campaign. The language during its transition from Khas-Kura to Parbate to Gorkhali to present Nepali has transformed words from multiple dialects.

Edited By: Araceli, Jason, Susana

ImageNepali Alphabets

ImageChart: Shows langues spoken in Nepal

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Map of Nepal

Work Cited

Basnet, Dev B. “Online Nepali Literature Forum.” Online Nepali Literature Forum. Online Nepali Literature Forum, 5 Nov. 2005. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. <http://www.sahityaghar.com/modules/detail.php?ID=434&gt;.

Kulper, Kathleen, and Elizabeth P. Pauls. “Nepali Language.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, 24 June 2009. Web. 22 Nov. 2013. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/409194/Nepali-language&gt;.

Rubenstein, James M. “Languages.” Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography. N.p.: Prentice Hall PTR, 2013. 142-177. Print.

Ethnicity in Nigeria.

Kishan Pachhai

Prof Alex Bullen

GEO 106-101

11/19/2013

Ethnicity

                    Ethnicity is a source of pride to people. It is a link to the experiences of ancestors and to cultural traditions such as food, clothing, and music preferences. It is also belonging to a group with which they share cultural background. Ethnicity matters in places of discrimination by one ethnic group, against the other. An ethnic group is tied to a particular place because of members of the group, their ancestors, and place born and raised.  Ethnicities have distinctive traits. The trait displayed by ethnicity derives from particular conditions and practices. Nigeria is a home to more than 500 ethnic groups, but it is primarily made up of four main ethnic groups including Hausa, Fulani who are Muslims, Igbo and Yoruba who are about sixty percent of the population. Reasons behind the violence in Nigeria are ethnic or religious differences due to scrambles for land, scarce resources, and political clout. Poverty, joblessness, and corrupt politics drive the country and even though nation rakes in billions of dollars in oil. The majority of Nigerians scrape by less than a dollar a day. Differences in ethnicity and the need to be superior to the other is the cause of the civil war, violence, and lack of development in the country.

Nigeria has been plagued by violence for decades. The poor distribution of wealth in Nigeria’s oil-rich southern Delta region causes militants to regularly blow up pipelines for greater revenue, and kidnapping foreign oil workers. Violence between Muslim and Christian ethnic group was always kept in check by military regimes, but it started again when Nigeria returned to Civilian rule in 1 October, 1979. The greater freedom of religious expression in Nigeria is due to democracy, as it intensified the political and economic friction between the ethnic groups. According to Buhayar, in “Ethnicity in Nigeria” says that rioting in 2001 killed more than 1,000 people outbreak in 2005, killed another thousand in 2008, and in 20009 small but vicious attacks claimed dozen of lives.

The current population in Nigeria has increased to over one hundred and sixty eight million, from one hundred and twenty two million back in 2000. Over time, all the ethnic groups grow much larger. Nigeria however continues to have its difficulties, successfully governing variety of people in which over four hundred different languages are spoken and on top the same number of separate cultures. The cities are very discriminative along ethno-religious lines, and usually an ethnic clash in part of country can trigger the riot or attack in other parts of the country. All major ethnic groups have formed militias to protect their own interest as the law enforcement is not strict.  I think that the Nigerians will continue to participate in its own civil war. Being so diverse in ethnicity, each has their own belief, so the need to take over and being superior to the other group, this is what prompts the wars and fights. According to Simon, in Ethnicity in Nigeria, It is known as “the Giant of Africa”, for being popular in Africa and seventh most populous country in the world. Its economy is the second largest in African and the 30th largest in the word as of 2012. So, if all the people from different ethnicity were to get together, I believe that Nigeria can be really developed country as civil wars only affect them from progressing in the long run.

Edited By: Araceli, Jason, Susana

Pic 1-1Image

Residents of the Nigerian village of Dogo Nahawa stand by a mass grave on March 8, 2010, as health officials cover bodies of people killed during a religious clash with the Hausa-Fulani

Federal Republic of Nigeria
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Map of Nigeria exhibiting 36 states and the federal capital territory

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Work Cited

 Rakov, Simon A. “Ethnicity in Nigeria.” Ethnicity in Nigeria. Postcolonialweb.com, Aug. 2000. Web. 19        Nov. 2013. <http://www.postcolonialweb.org/nigeria/ethnicity.html&gt;.

Rubenstein, James M. “Ethnicity.” Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography. N.p.: Prentice Hall PTR, 2013. 224-55. Print.