Category Archives: Economics

Network Marketing.

Kyra Binaxas

Human culture has always been distributed across the globe in different ways. A new element of human culture that seems to be having a great impact on human society at a now global scale is network marketing. Network marketing is a fairly new type of industry that has been said to be the business of the twenty-first century.

The concept is that a product gets recognized and sold due to word of mouth from ordinary people in every day life versus utilizing celebrities, adds, and in store sales. By using this method average people are able to create residual income based on how many individuals they recruit to buy, utilize, and promote the product themselves. Many motivational speakers such as Robert Kiyosaki back this industry one hundred percent!

It has, in fact, been proven to create more millionaires than any other industry out there! Different cultures have different perspectives on this concept of network marketing. When promotion for making money in this way is passed on to many of the eastern cultures- people of that area is not as consumed with financial issues as those of the western world. Value to them lies more so in family assets and traditional culture than becoming the next billionaire. As a result this service is not as popular. Also it does take money to start up in this industry so it would not be able to work in the more poverty stricken areas of the world. With any industry great risk is involved, but especially with network marketing because not all companies involved in this industry are ethical. Whatever business people choose to enter I can only hope that they have done their research, know that it is the right choice for them, and always continue to remain passionate!

Works cited

  1. . N.p.. Web. 9 Dec 2013. <http://richdadmanila.com/is-network-marketing-the-business-of-the-future/&gt;.
  2. . N.p.. Web. 9 Dec 2013. <http://mlmattorney.com/blog/2012/06/21/network-marketing-a-growing-industry-hard-facts-and-the-future/&gt;.

Edited by:

Jacob Standafer, Jessica Silvestri, Ellie Strandquist

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Kyra Binaxas

            The novel Twelve Years a Slave by Solomon Northup is an excellent rendition of slavery in antebellum society and greatly exemplifies how politics effected views on African Americans, as well as how it dictated their religion and literacy.

This novel tells the story of one free mans true account of his being captured and sold into slavery, subjected to its brutality for over a decade of his life. The propaganda and explanation for holding the slave population captive was directly the result of political influence. It was for the best of the southern economy and was successful in convincing much of the white population that African Americans in fact enjoyed their lifestyle and were unable to comprehend the idea of what it was to be a free man. The religious stories told to the slave population were those of obedience and reform. The way religion was utilized was political itself, although still providing a form of salvation, was not spoken of or taught in much of the same way that it would be exercised it today. The novel not only depicts this usage but also the difference in literacy of that of the free man and the slave. Human beings born into slavery were purposefully not taught to be literate specifically for a political agenda. The difference between communication among those born to slavery and those who were not depicted in the novel is truly great.

Works Cited

  1. Northup, Solomon. Twelve Years A Slave . Dover Ed. Auburn, NY: Dover Publications, 2000. Print.
  2. Rubenstein, James. The Cultural Landscape. 11th ed. Pearson Education, Print.

Edited by:

Jessica Silvestri, Ellie Strandquist, Jacob Standofer

Offshore Drilling: How are economic activities distributed globally?

The global oil supply is vanishing. With this fact not exactly being a secret, it is easy to see why the developed nations of the world are trying to find any source of oil they can. There is an empire of technology and development that relies on it for fuel, and there isn’t a replacement, yet. One method, that has been debated in the USA for years, for obtaining new supplies is offshore drilling. Offshore drilling can create new jobs and cheaper oil, but at the risk of spoiling the ocean habitats where the drilling will take place.

On one side of the argument, there is the matter of the USA relying on oil from other nations. As William Jasper wrote in his article, “No other nation in the world prohibits development of its offshore energy. But, incredibly, federal prohibitions on OCS drilling over the past 25 years have caused the United States to send trillions of dollars to overseas oil producers and have jeopardized our national security by making us dangerously dependent on foreign energy sources,” (Jasper par. 4). Jasper continues with a plan to give each coastal state the power to govern its own waters. This would allow the states to decide for or against offshore drilling. While this may seem logical, the truth is that humanity will eventually have to peel away from its dependence on oil. Any method to acquire oil is simply a stop gap until the day it runs out. With that in mind, it hardly makes sense to drill when it puts ocean habitats at risk.

Conversely, in Alaska, and many other polar regions, oil companies have been allowed to explore whatever options for drilling they can find. With Global Climate change becoming an increasingly pertinent issue, Margaret Williams believes these expeditions into the Arctic are the precursor to a major oil spill (Williams par. 11). Williams refers to a lack in response abilities to spills in these Arctic zones as a major cause for worry. If a large oil corporation were to have a spill, even in Alaska, the damage would most likely be done by the time they had cleared the spill. Earth is already losing species to Global Climate Change, but this increases the odds dramatically.

Offshore drilling would only provide the United States with small benefits, and it would take years for the average person to see them. It is a highly risky practice that involves giving jobs to a large part of Americans, but at the potential cost of the extinction of entire species. The most confusing part about the issue is that it is still being discussed. Offshore drilling is simply not a solution and should not be advertised as one.

Works Cited

Jasper, William F. “Offshore Drilling Will Create Jobs and Help the Economy.” Offshore Drilling. Ed. Margaret Haerens. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from “Lifeblood from the Ocean Floor: The Lame-Duck Congress Has the Opportunity to Tackle U.S. Dependence on Foreign Oil and Save Hundreds of Billions of Dollars and Millions of Jobs with a Deep-Ocean Drilling Bill.”The New American (11 Dec. 2006). Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 4 Dec. 2013.

Williams, Margaret. “Offshore Drilling in Alaska Should Be Limited.”Offshore Drilling. Ed. Margaret Haerens. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2010. Opposing Viewpoints. Rpt. from “Offshore Drilling in Alaska: Time to Slow the Rush.” Yale Environment 360. 2008. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 4 Dec. 2013.

Reviewed by:

Jacob Standafer
Oren Paisner
Jennah Reiman

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Chemicals Affecting Drinking Water.

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and the subsequent elevation in the use of industrial chemicals, there have been a multitude of corporations leaking these chemicals into public water supply. As early as 1952, Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E) was leaking hexavalent chromium into the ground water, and eventually the tap water, of the Mojave Desert region (Layton, pgr. 12). With dangers being presented from drinking water out of the tap, many have turned to home water filtration which are only reliable for removing some bacteria (Keating pgr. 4). There is a clear case to be made from this evidence. The US needs a solution to clean drinking water, immediately.

In the mid-90s a legal battle ensued between PG&E and legal activist, Erin Brokovich. The case was based on evidence Brokovich had gathered, showing the company’s record of leaking a significant amount of Hexevalent Chromium into the ground water below Hinkley, CA. Hexevalent Chromium is a known carcinogen, the detection of which can be technical and arduous. These events were concluded in 1996 when, “the company paid $333 million in damages… and pledged to clean up the contamination” (Layton, pgr. 12). Currently the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is fighting a similar issue.

Lindsey Layton published an article in the Washington Post, “EPA urges testing for chemical in tap water.” Discussed in her article are the issues that face such testing, such as the need for a budget increase to the EPA. Generating this need is the laboratory equipment required in the difficult process that tests for Hexevalent Chromium. In a quote from George Hawkins, the General Manager of D.C. Water, said that any guidance were given from the EPA would be followed. Additionally, he stated, “If additional testing needs to be taken to make sure that what we’re doing is protective of public health, that’s what we’ll do,” (Layton pgr. 3,4). Currently there is no federal limit on the amount of this chemical that can be in public water (Layton pgr. 6). With no way of removing these chemicals, currently found in government run facilities, or available for purchase on the commercial market, it is difficult to understand why so little is being done (Keating pgr. 5).

There is additional information, not discussed here due to its substantial amount, that shows everything from pharmaceuticals to Hexevalent Chromium can be found in the water we drink. The most each person can do is write their appropriate congressman and be aware of the filtration system they are buying, as there are some that can remove more of these chemicals than others. It is also important to raise awareness of this issue, since the nature of these changes require both time and money.

Works Cited

Layton, Lyndsey. “EPA urges testing for chemical in tap water.”Washington Post 23 Dec. 2010: A04. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.

Keating, Michael “Public told to beware when buying water filters.” Globe & Mail [Toronto, Canada] 30 July 1986: A13. Opposing Viewpoints in Context. Web. 1 Dec. 2013.

Reviewed by:

Jacob Standafer

Oren Paisner

Jennah Reiman
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How Geographers Look at Economic and Social Development.

Oren Paisner

Professor Bullen

Final Project

12/2/2013

How Geographers Look At Economic and Social Development

            One of the most amazing things that modern society offers is the convenience of goods. Goods were not always this easy to come by. As a matter of fact, before the industrial revolution if you wanted a new winter jacket you had to make it yourself. That is why it is important to know how economic and social development works and how it is measured since it influences the quality of life for people who are subject to it. Geographers correlate economic and social development to the production of services, concentration of global cities, and concentration of assets from other countries.

It is interesting to see how the percentage of GDP from services plays into determining whether a country is economically and socially developed. Countries like Japan, USA, Australia, Great Britain, etc. are by most people’s standards very economically and socially developed. One thing they have in common is that 70% of their GDP comes from services (Rubenstein, 431). It is safe to say that countries with economies derived mostly from services are more economically and socially developed.

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Another characteristic that many developed countries share is that they either have global cities within them or are near a large concentration of global cities. It is interesting to note that the highest concentration of global cities is in Western Europe (21stcentech.com). Western Europe happens to be one of the most highly developed regions in the world. Investors and businesses are attracted to such a region because they have to do business there in order to successfully compete with each other. The amount of money that comes with the onslaught of investors and businesses pouring into the region in return adds to the development of that country when the money that is being made gets taxed.

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A lot of countries that aren’t very socially and economically developed seem to attract a lot of investors looking to launder their money and get away with paying significantly less taxes. Offshore financial centers such as the islands of Montserrat, Mauritius, Seychelles, and others are countries that are almost entirely dependent on those kinds of foreign investors (Rubenstein, 444).  If those countries developed higher taxes and stricter banking laws, there economies would completely collapse.

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Social and Economic development of countries are comprised of a multitude of factors very often unique to each other. It is important to understand what makes up those factors to better understand any country.

Works Cited

http://www.21stcentech.com/society-politics-part-4-change/

Rubenstein, James M. The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography. Upper _____Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005. Print.

Edited by: Kyra, Ellie and Jacob

Sustainability of Biodiversity and the Economy in Costa Rica.

Jennah Reiman

Prof. Bullen

GEO 106-101

11 Dec. 2013

Article # 2

Sustainability of Biodiversity and the Economy in Costa Rica

            A new course of action towards bettering the environment has changed distribution of economic activities.  Recently, a technique using buffer zones has hit the market in improving biodiversity.  This technique involves creating a neutral area between natural reserves and city limits to help create a cushion for protecting the environment.  Buffer zones are a key influence in the global distribution of agriculture and the economic properties that follow.

Conserving protected areas not only enhances environmental biodiversity but also the economy of the surrounding areas.  An example of where buffer zones have proven to be beneficial is in Costa Rica.  In effort to better conserve national parks, Costa Rica has boosted the economy by creating pull factors for many individuals.  The natural beauty that has been restored to the protected areas creates a lot of tourism.  Dense forests in the county give people incentive to visit historical parks and to regain a connection to nature.  Tourism greatly helps the economy of Costa Rica as an article discussing the topic explains; “raising fees for protected areas (particularly for foreign visitors) has shown great potential for providing a sustainable flow of funding to protected areas” (Economic Incentives and Protected Areas, 54).  These buffer zones are also gaining popularity for use of farming and live stock.  Many farmers however, are reminded not to over-harvest, use many natural resources or contribute to deforestation.  Regarding migrants, anthropologist David Hoffman mentions that “in the Costa Rican case, many migrants are urban-to-rural migrants, often sacrificing the educational and economic amenities of urban San José for the perceived safety, tranquility and rurality of PA buffer zones” (Hoffman).  The introduction of buffer zones has created many changes to the Costa Rican economy.

Buffer zones have well benefitted Costa Rica, in that both the sustainability of the environment and the economy seem to have bright futures.  The economy is flourishing from this green revolution and so is the biodiversity.  People are moving from urban to rural areas and the economy is following; creating a change in distribution of economic activities.  Promoting this idea could help other countries economically as well as return the earth back into a habitable region for all species.  Although it may take time and effort, the end results are well worth making a change.

Edited by: Shae Kovalchick, Nathan Lee and Emily Flora

Works Cited

“Economic Incentives and Protected Areas.” 47-60. Mekong-protected-areas.org. Web. 19 Nov. 2013. <http://www.mekong-protected-areas.org/mekong/docs/tlp-04.pdf&gt;.

Hoffman, David M. “What Do Migrants Think?” Anthropology News. American Anthropological Association, 2013. Web. 19 Nov. 2013.

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